Upon completion of this course, a student will be able to:
• Calculate the average speed of an object using the change in position and elapsed time.
• Represent the velocities for linear motion using motion diagrams (arrows on strobe pictures).
• Create line graphs using measured values of position and elapsed time.
• Describe and analyze the motion that a position-time graph represents, given the graph.
• Solve problems involving average speed and constant acceleration in one dimension.
• Distinguish between the variables of distance, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration.
• Use the change of speed and elapsed time to calculate the average acceleration for linear motion.
• Describe and analyze the motion that a velocity-time graph represents, given the graph.
• Use the area under a velocity-time graph to calculate the distance traveled and the slope to calculate the acceleration.
• Describe and compare the motion of an object using different reference frames
• Describe and classify various motions in a plane as one dimensional, two dimensional.
• Identify the changes in speed and direction in everyday examples of projectile motions.
• Apply the independence of the vertical and horizontal initial velocities to solve projectile motion problems.
• Solve problems involving force, mass, and acceleration in two-dimensional projectile motion restricted to an initial horizontal velocity with no initial vertical velocity (e.g., ball rolling off a table).
• Identify the force(s) acting between objects.
• Identify the basic forces in everyday interactions.
• Identify the magnitude and direction of everyday forces (e.g., wind, tension in ropes, pushes and pulls, weight).
• Calculate the net force acting on an object.
• Calculate all the forces on an object on an inclined plane and describe the object’s motion based on the forces using free-body diagrams.
• Identify the action and reaction force from examples of forces in everyday situations (e.g., book on a table, walking across the floor, pushing open a door).
• Predict how the change in velocity of a small mass compares to the change in velocity of a large mass when the same force is applied.
• Explain the recoil of a projectile launcher in terms of forces and masses.
• Analyze why seat belts may be more important in autos than in buses.
• Predict the change in motion of an object acted on by several forces.
• Identify forces acting on objects moving with constant velocity (e.g., cars on a highway).
• Solve problems involving force, mass, and acceleration in linear motion (Newton’s second law).
• Calculate the changes in velocity of a thrown or hit object during and after the time it is acted on by the force.
• Explain how the time of impact can affect the net force (e.g., air bags in cars, catching a ball).
• Apply conservation of momentum to solve simple collision problems.
• Account for and represent energy into and out of systems using energy transfer diagrams.
• Explain instances of energy transfer by waves and objects in everyday activities (e.g., why the ground gets warm during the day, how you hear a distant sound, why it hurts when you are hit by a baseball).
• Explain why work has a more precise scientific meaning than the meaning of work in everyday language.
• Calculate the amount of work done on an object that is moved from one position to another.
• Using the formula for work, derive a formula for change in potential energy of an object lifted a distance h.
• Account for and represent energy transfer and transformation in complex processes (interactions).
• Name devices that transform specific types of energy into other types (e.g., a device that transforms electricity into motion).
• Explain how energy is conserved in common systems (e.g., light incident on a transparent material, light incident on a leaf, mechanical energy in a collision).
• Explain why all the stored energy in gasoline does not transform to mechanical energy of a vehicle.
• Explain the energy transformation as an object (e.g., skydiver) falls at a steady velocity.
• Identify and label the energy inputs, transformations, and outputs using qualitative or quantitative representations in simple technological systems (e.g., toaster, motor, hair dryer) to show energy conservation.
• Identify the form of energy in given situations (e.g., moving objects, stretched springs, rocks on cliffs, energy in food).
• Describe the transformation between potential and kinetic energy in simple mechanical systems (e.g., pendulums, roller coasters, ski lifts).
• Explain why all mechanical systems require an external energy source to maintain their motion.
• Rank the amount of kinetic energy from highest to lowest of everyday examples of moving objects.
• Calculate the changes in kinetic and potential energy in simple mechanical systems (e.g., pendulums, roller coasters, ski lifts) using the formulas for kinetic energy and potential energy.
• Calculate the impact speed (ignoring air resistance) of an object dropped from a specific height or the maximum height reached by an object (ignoring air resistance), given the initial vertical velocity.
• Explain the energy transformation as an object (e.g., skydiver) falls at a steady velocity.
• Identify and label the energy inputs, transformations, and outputs using qualitative or quantitative representations in simple technological systems (e.g., toaster, motor, hair dryer) to show energy conservation.
• Identify the force(s) acting on objects moving with uniform circular motion (e.g., a car on a circular track, satellites in orbit).
• Represent the velocities for linear and circular motion using motion diagrams (arrows on strobe pictures).
• Distinguish between rotation and revolution and describe and contrast the two speeds of an object like the Earth.
• Identify the changes in speed and direction in everyday examples of circular (rotation and revolution), periodic, and projectile motions.
• State that uniform circular motion involves acceleration without a change in speed.
• Explain earth-moon interactions (orbital motion) in terms of forces.
• Predict how the gravitational force between objects changes when the distance between them changes.
• Explain how your weight on Earth could be different from your weight on another planet.
• Calculate force, masses, or distance, given any three of these quantities, by applying the Law of Universal Gravitation, given the value of G.
• Draw arrows (vectors) to represent how the direction and magnitude of a force changes on an object in an elliptical orbit.